Wānanga deliver education through multiple sites, often using community resources to support teaching and learning. While the wānanga sector is smaller than the institute of technology and polytechnic and university sectors, it contributes to the tertiary sector via its distinctive approach to teaching and learning, the areas in which it works and the groups with whom it works. Wānanga attract many first-time tertiary learners, both Māori and non-Māori, at foundation-level study. They support many of these learners on to higher levels of study.
The wānanga sector delivers education from over 600 sites throughout New Zealand, including around 150 marae-based sites. While each wānanga is unique, they are expected to contribute to the tertiary education sector and to support the priorities in the Tertiary Education Strategy (TES). Wānanga also play an important role in re-engaging learners in education.
In 2012, wānanga received $169 million or 6 percent of total government funding for tertiary education organisations
The TES defines the core roles and expectations for wānanga as:
|Core roles||Government expectations|
| || |
Wānanga advance the Government’s TES priorities by:
In 2012, highlights across the wānanga sector included:
In 2012, the wānanga sector received $169.2 million in government funding (6% of all government funding for tertiary education organisations) and continued to make a significant contribution to tertiary education, particularly for Māori and Pasifika learners. The wānanga sector improved its performance on all of the educational performance indicators, compared with 2011. The wānanga sector’s financial performance generally improved in 2012.
The wānanga sector improved its performance on all of the educational performance indicators
Key challenges for wānanga during 2012 included:
The mix of delivery across the levels of study remained the same in 2012. The majority of wānanga delivery was at Levels 3–4 (50%) and Levels 1–2 (32%) (see figure 37). In 2012, wānanga increased their delivery across all levels except Levels 5–6 (down by 404 EFTS). Enrolments across Levels 1–4 increased by 338 EFTS while Level 7 and above increased by 92 EFTS.
In 2012, the largest proportion of EFTS in the wānanga sector was in Society and Culture (54%), followed by Management and Commerce (23%) and Creative Arts (10%). Society and Culture dropped slightly (down by 2% or 473 EFTS) on the previous year while Management and Commerce increased (up by 3% or 950 EFTS) (see figure 38).
In 2012, Māori students accounted for 57 percent of all wānanga enrolments
The number of Māori EFTS enrolled at wānanga decreased in 2012 by 4 percentage points (651 EFTS), while there was an increase in the number of European (up by 313 EFTS) and Asian (up by 210 EFTS) students compared with 2011. Pasifika student enrolments remained at 9 percent of the total but dropped slightly in terms of the number of enrolments (down by 57 EFTS) (see figure 39).
Overall, achievement improved across the wānanga in 2012 for all students including the TES priority groups (Māori, Pasifika and students under 25 years of age) (see figure 40).
TES Priority: Increasing the number of young people achieving qualifications at Level 4 and above, particularly degrees
Students under the age of 25 accounted for 17 percent of all 2012 wānanga enrolments, an increase of 1 percentage point compared with 2011. Course completion improved among this group (up from 74% in 2011 to 76% in 2012) as did qualification completion (up from 54% in 2011 to 60% in 2012), student retention (up from 59% in 2011 to 62% in 2012) and student progression (up from 37% to 38%) (see figure 41). In 2012, the wānanga sector enrolled 145 students in Youth Guarantee programmes, which target young people with low educational attainment.
Youth Guarantee students in the wānanga sector achieved 71 percent in course completion and 64 percent in qualification completion in 2012. While this course completion rate is slightly below the wider wānanga youth cohort over the same period, the qualification completion rate is 10 percentage points higher.
Youth participation at Level 4 and above increased in 2012 (up by 208 EFTS) to account for 57 percent of total youth enrolments across the wānanga sector.
Youth enrolments in 2012 continued to shift away from Levels 5–6 diplomas and graduate certificates (a decrease of 138 EFTS) reflecting the trend across the wānanga sector. Youth achievement continued to increase with course completion up from 72 percent in 2011 to 75 percent in 2012, qualification completion up from 57 percent in 2011 to 61 percent in 2012, student retention up from 59 percent in 2011 to 61 percent in 2012 and student progression up from 34 percent in 2011 to 38 percent in 2012.
TES Priority: Increasing the number of Māori students enjoying success at higher levels
The number of Māori enrolments decreased by 651 EFTS or 3 percentage points compared with 2011 (see figure 42). Nearly half of all Māori enrolments were at Levels 3–4 (47%). There was a decrease in participation at Levels 5–6 (down by 449 EFTS) but an increase in participation at Levels 7–8 and Levels 9–10.
Achievement continued to improve for Māori, with course completion up from 77 percent in 2011 to 78 percent in 2012, qualification completion up from 60 percent in 2011 to 63 percent in 2012 and student retention up from 63 percent in 2011 to 65 percent in 2012. Student progression was the only measure that did not demonstrate an improvement but remained steady at the 2011 level.
TES Priority: Increasing the number of Pasifika students achieving at higher levels
Across the wānanga sector, Pasifika participation remained at similar levels to previous years, accounting for 9 percent of total enrolments (see figure 43). In 2012, Pasifika enrolments reduced by 3 percent (57 EFTS). The distribution of Pasifika students across the levels of study also remained similar to 2011 with slight decreases across Levels 3–6. In terms of achievement, there was some slippage in course completion (down from 80% in 2011 to 78% in 2012) and qualification completion (down from 73% in 2011 to 65% in 2012). Pasifika student retention improved in 2012 (up from 70% in 2011 to 72% in 2012) as did student progression (up from 35% in 2011 to 39% 2012).
TES Priority: Strengthening research outcomes
Wānanga undertake research that advances and disseminates knowledge, develops intellectual independence and helps the application of āhuatanga Māori and tikanga Māori.
The volume of post-graduate enrolments across the wānanga sector remained steady in 2012, accounting for 1 percent of all wānanga enrolments. Funding for the Performance-Based Research Fund (PBRF) is allocated according to three elements: quality evaluation, research degree completions and external research income. Wānanga received 0.2 percent of the indicative PBRF funding in 2012, while accounting for 17 research degree completions and generating over $780,000 in external research income.
The wānanga sector continued to achieve strong net surpluses
In 2012, the sector achieved an overall net surplus of 6.4 percent up from 5.0 percent in 2011 (see table 6). Total operating revenue was down $2.3 million (1.1%) due to a decrease in student tuition fees and a small decrease in government funding. In 2011, the wānanga sector, led by Te Wānanga o Aotearoa, entered the international market, achieving international fees revenue of $0.4 million in 2011. This increased 62.1 percent to $0.7 million in 2012.
The additional income from international fees, together with expenditure reductions, enabled the wānanga sector to increase the net surplus (before unusual items) from $10.7 million to $12.6 million between 2011 and 2012. It was the only sector to do so. The net surplus (after unusual items) is the same as there was no financial impact from unusual items in 2012 and, at 6.4 percent, it is the strongest across the sectors.
Net assets have increased by $109.8 million between 2008 and 2012, an increase of 74.8 percent. An increase of $10.3 million, or 3.9 percent, occurred between 2011 and 2012, taking the wānanga sector to a net asset base of $256.5 million. Wānanga balance sheets remained strong in 2012, with liquidity increasing over 2011.
|Key performance metrics||2010||2011||2012||TEC minimum |
|Net surplus (after unusual and non-recurring items)||6.80%||5.00%||6.36%||3.00%|
|Net cashflow from operations||112.50%||115.20%||112.98%||111.00%|
|3-Year average return on property, plant, equipment and intangibles||18.30%||15.80%||12.55%||4.50%|
|Summary financial statements |
|2010||2011||2012||% of 2012 |
|Total government revenue||$174,952||$169,881||$169,366||85%|
|Domestic student fees||$13,610||$13,633||$7,705||4%|
|International student fees||–||$420||$681||Less than 1%|
|Other income (including research)||$14,755||$16,915||$20,837||10%|
|Property, plant, equipment and intangibles||$109,764||$126,696||$143,873||43%|
|Equity (net assets)||$237,033||$246,796||$256,495|
* This summary is based on data submitted to the TEC by each wānanga as part of the TEC’s financial monitoring framework.
In 2012, the Tertiary Education Commission allocated $169.2 million in government funding to wānanga. The majority went to Teaching and Learning ($167.3 million) and the remainder to Capability ($1.5 million) and Research ($494,574) (see figure 44).
Wānanga will be required to focus on the following key areas in 2013 and beyond to support TES priorities: